Monday, August 24, 2020

Australian Drama

Australian dramatists utilize an assortment of styles, procedures and shows to introduce pictures on the phase that incite and challenge their crowds. Examine regarding your examination and experience of the plays you have considered. The Australian dramatists contemplated for this present year have utilized an assortment of styles, methods and shows, introducing Images which incite and challenge crowds. The Removals by David Williamson and No Sugar by Jack Davis, notwithstanding the various settings, are worried about force and status and the contention which is made by intonating social and social values.While Davis' No Sugar is set in Western Australia in the ass' and spotlights on the segregation and prejudice experienced by Aboriginals, The Removals manages Police defilement in the us. In spite of these various settings, the two plays control a scope of style, strategies and shows to make pictures which successfully challenge and incite their crowds. The two plays consolidate a scope of styles, methods and shows to make Images which incite and challenge the crowd however the most huge emotional quinine Is the intentional and cautious utilization of differentiation In the spoken language.The exchange in No Sugar incites the crowd directly from the main scene with the beginning blend of â€Å"lingo's', â€Å"Garrulously Nosegays corroboree to a wet]la's metal band! † Here the crowd is given a garbled picture of Aboriginals attempting to do the inconceivable †alter and acclimatize amicably to the conventional music of the controlling society. From the amusing slang of Jimmy, â€Å"Oh Jesus, me ridiculous leg† to the formal, axiom †style discourse of Manville, â€Å"in this little ornery of the Empire† (4. ) the crowd is tested by the clear separation of status, instruction and benefit. White language is formal and cleaned. Dark language Is funny, inventive, irate and despondent, the funniness provoking the crowd to Identify tho ughtfully with the gutsy and flexible characters. Differentiating social and social qualities are heard all through the play, the writer intentionally featuring the dark conditions with white.Similarly, the open stage settings and equal scenes compared all through, serve to accentuation the differentiating circumstances. For instance, (center around three significant scenes as proof †taking a gander at how the various components make pictures for the crowd) In a totally unique setting, David Williamson The Removals features the characters' shortcomings and vulnerabilities which uncover themselves as the strain raises and the expanding defilement realists, through the differentiating and undeniable individual voices.Simmons Interrogates as opposed to imparting, utilizing an evidently considerate yet purposely pithy and unrefined style, â€Å"l trust you're not a youthful keen Ares Ross. Ross conversely parrots clich㠩â ©s, â€Å"got to be prepared for all eventualities,â₠¬  and the Removal's dull, â€Å"Vie got 5000 dollars worth of apparatus ticking over in the carport', inciting the crowd to rethink the about the dependability and trustworthiness of the Police power, the eagerness of a tradesman to get associated with an emergency are challenged.Events are introduced quickly and escalated through the type of the two single acts, the police headquarters and the level; the writer expanding on a basically practical style with components of Greek Theater, the mercy occurring offstage, accordingly permitting the crowd to depend on their minds to make their own pictures of intensity and debasement wild, moving them to reevaluate their thoughts and presumption .Both plays basically depend on Realism to connect with, incite and challenge the crowd while making persuading and compelling pictures. Albeit No Sugar has ordinarily been organized utilizing a Promenade structure, trials and conversations in class. (distinguish an organizing thoughts †mayb e transformational acting/projection/voice over †consider how well this would fill in as a radio play) The Removals generally is performed on a phase which â€Å"breaks the fourth wall† in naturalistic style, depending on sensible and conspicuous Australian generalizations.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Bleak House Commentary Essay Example for Free

Disheartening House Commentary Essay Coming up next is an examination of an entry from Charles Dickens epic, Bleak House, in which a somber and terrible air is passed on. The main thing that is referenced by the storyteller in the primary section of the entry is mud, and this has a noteworthy impact in the portrayal of a soiled, messy condition. The starting line, As much mud in the streetsand it would not be great to meet a Megalosaurus, forty feet in length or somewhere in the vicinity, waddling like an enormous reptile up Holborn Hill utilizes metaphor to propose that the boulevards are sloppy to the point that its practically like the start of the world, and it wouldnt be peculiar to see a dinosaur wandering around hence. Likewise, the line Dogs, undistinguishable in soil. Ponies, hardly better; sprinkled to their very signals is a misrepresentation of how the avenues are grimy to such an extent that one can't tell the distinctive between the mud and the mutts, and even ponies are up to their eyes in it. This shows us exactly how much mud and grime there is, and how messy everything is. Another viewpoint in this section is the inauspiciousness and the dreary condition. This is communicated in the line Foot-travelers, jarring one anothers umbrellas, in a general disease of testiness, and losing their solid footing at traffic intersections, where a huge number of other foot travelers have been slipping and sliding since the day broke (if this day at any point broke), adding new stores to the outside endless supply of mud Right off the bat, the line jarring one anothers umbrellas recommends that the spot is so stuffed and awkward that individuals are on the whole finding one another, and that their bad mood is spread like an illness each opportunity they come into contact, and it blends in us a feeling of claustrophobia in light of the fact that the individuals are totally pressed together. This adds to the suggestion that its a hopeless and unsavory spot to be. Additionally, the way that the foot-travelers are utilizing umbrellas recommends that it is or has been coming down, reinforcing the general sentiment of despair. Besides, the way that the piece of the line slipping and sliding since the day broke (if this day at any point broke) is written in bracket proposes the wry voice of the storyteller, that he is taunting the foot-travelers crankiness and insultingly remarking on the cold and discouraging environment, and this thusly strengthens very reality. The utilization of sibilance in slipping and sliding further expands the impact of the bleak condition. The accompanying line, Smoke dropping down from fireplace pots, making a delicate dark shower with chips of ash in it as large as full-developed snowflakes gone into grieving, one may envision, for the demise of the sun is exceptionally successful in communicating how terrible the spot is. The way that the smoke is letting down, rather than floating upwards as it ordinarily does, suggests that the environment is severe to such an extent that even smoke cannot get away and is being pushed down. Moreover, there is an embodiment of the ash and day off, they have gone into grieving for the demise of the sun. This could be a ramifications that the spot is so desolate and contaminated that you can no longer observe the sun, and that is the reason it has kicked the bucket, and is likewise why everything is dark. This adequately escalates the sentiment of misery and grimness that is hanging over the city, and the depressingness of nature. The second section of this entry focuses essentially on haze and how it has been embodied into a shadowy evil spirit from which there will never be a way out. The primary line of the subsequent section starts with Fog all over the place, and this by itself is an unexpected, forceful articulation that causes us to feel, by and by, marginally claustrophobic, just as there is haze squeezing in surrounding us and that there will never be a way out from it. Along these lines, the lines Fog in the eyes and throats of antiquated Greenwich retired people, wheezing by the firesides, and Fog remorselessly squeezing the toes and fingers of his shuddering little prentice kid on deck are instances of how the mist is exemplified, and made to appear to be evil, inescapable, similar to an oppressor that enjoys assaulting frail, helpless individuals like old Greenwich beneficiaries and the shuddering little prentice kid. Another extremely useful line is Chance individuals on the extensions peeping over the parapets into an under sky of mist, with haze surrounding them, as though they were up in an inflatable, and hanging in the foggy mists. The utilization of the action word peeping is intriguing on the grounds that it implies the individuals are looking rapidly or furtively over the extensions, and it makes a feeling of anxiety and dread, just as the individuals are startled of the haze, along these lines causing the mist to appear to be all the additionally compromising. Furthermore, the utilization of parapets may not be only a reference to the sides of the extension, as it additionally makes us consider palaces, thus individuals peeping over parapets causes it to appear just as they are under attack or enduring an onslaught from a multitude of haze, which returns to the inference that the mist assaults feeble or powerless individuals. Moreover, the last piece of the line, as though they were up in an inflatable, and hanging in the dim mists passes on a feeling of defenselessness, since when youre in an inflatable you have restricted control, and this has been utilized as an allegory to recommend how the individuals have no power over the haze and that they are caught by it. Indeed, this makes the sentiment of claustrophobia and causes it to appear to be overpowering as there is so much haze and theres no chance to get out. The structure of these this section is exceptionally fascinating to note. The primary passage is practically conversational, just as the storyteller is depicting to us the numerous occasions of the day, while the subsequent section out of nowhere changes to progressively dismal, grave account of the haze, and this influences us and causes us to feel uncomfortable of the mist. This is additionally mostly on the grounds that the entry is written in the present, thus it includes us, causes us to feel as though we are there in the grim condition. Also, the lengthened linguistic structure of the sentences reflects the long, hopeless day and the ceaseless mist, and this heightens the desolate inclination we get from it. Taking everything into account, this section from Bleak House utilizes a wide range of procedures, for example, exemplification, metaphor and manner of speaking to viably communicate the messy and melancholy condition and the general sentiment of wretchedness and sadness.

Sunday, July 19, 2020

Facts About Alcohol Abuse, Misuse, and Alcoholism

Facts About Alcohol Abuse, Misuse, and Alcoholism Addiction Alcohol Use Print Facts About Alcohol Abuse, Misuse, and Alcoholism What Is Alcoholism and How Can Someone Get Help for Addiction? By Buddy T facebook twitter Buddy T is an anonymous writer and founding member of the Online Al-Anon Outreach Committee with decades of experience writing about alcoholism. Learn about our editorial policy Buddy T Updated on February 22, 2018 pbombaert / Getty Images More in Addiction Alcohol Use Binge Drinking Withdrawal and Relapse Children of Alcoholics Drunk Driving Addictive Behaviors Drug Use Nicotine Use Coping and Recovery Here is a comprehensive list of answers to the most often asked questions about alcohol, alcoholism, and substance abuse. They provide information to better understand the health consequences of alcohol use disorders. Consult your physician or healthcare provider if you think you or a loved one has an alcohol problem. Understanding Alcoholism There isnt an official diagnosis called alcoholism. What the entire world knows as alcoholism is officially known as an alcohol use disorder. So, what are we referring to when we use the term alcoholism? Alcoholism is a chronic, often progressive disease with symptoms that include a strong need to drink despite negative consequences, such as work or health problems. Like many other diseases, it has a generally predictable course, has recognized symptoms, and its influenced by both genetic and environmental factors that are being increasingly well defined. The Genetic Component Alcoholism tends to run in families and genetic factors partially explain this pattern. Researchers are finding genes that influence vulnerability to alcoholism. Your environment, such as the influence of friends, stress levels, and the ease of obtaining alcohol, also may influence drinking and the development of alcoholism. Other factors, such as social support, may help to protect even high-risk people from alcohol problems. Risk, however, is not destiny. A child of an alcoholic parent will not automatically develop alcoholism. A person with no family history of alcoholism can become alcohol dependent. There Is No Cure Yet Alcoholism is a treatable disease and medication has also become available to help prevent relapse, but a cure has not yet been found. This means that even if an alcoholic has been sober for a long time and has regained health, he or she may relapse and must continue to avoid all alcoholic beverages. Medications for Alcoholism There are currently only three medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) specifically for treating alcoholism. Antabuse (disulfiram) makes you violently sick if you drink while taking it, Revia (naltrexone) blocks the effects of alcohol in your brain, and Campral (Acamprosate) reduces your craving for alcohol. Alcoholism Treatment The effectiveness of any treatment program is in large part dependent on how willing you are to stop drinking. Research shows that only a small percentage of those who enter professional treatment remain sober one year later, but others have extended periods of sobriety interspersed with relapses. Experiencing Problems With Alcohol When Youre Not an Alcoholic Even if youre not an alcoholic, abusing alcohol can have negative results, such as failure to meet major work, school, or family responsibilities because of drinking; alcohol-related legal trouble; automobile crashes due to drinking; and a variety of alcohol-related medical problems. Under some circumstances, problems can result from even moderate drinking. For example, when driving, during pregnancy, or when taking certain medicines. Certain Groups of People Are More Likely to Develop Alcohol Problems Than Others Over  15 million people in the United States have an alcohol use disorder of some sort. However, more men than women are alcohol dependent or experience alcohol-related problems. People with a family history of alcoholism are also at greater risk. In addition, rates of alcohol problems are highest among young adults ages 18-29 and lowest among adults 65 years and older. Among major U.S. ethnic groups, rates of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems vary. How to Tell If You or Someone Close to You Has an Alcohol Problem There is a line of thought that goes like this: If you have to ask if its a problem, its probably a problem. Someones official diagnosis is not important. If their drinking has become a problem for you or the family, then its a problem. However, there are signs and symptoms you can look for as well. Reducing Alcohol Use When Drinking Is Problematic If youre diagnosed as an alcoholic, you cant just reduce your alcohol use without stopping it altogether. Studies show that nearly all alcoholics who try to merely cut down on drinking are unable to do so indefinitely. Instead, cutting out alcohol (that is, abstaining) is nearly always necessary for successful recovery. However, if you are not an alcoholic but have had alcohol-related problems, you may be able to limit the amount you drink. How to Get Help for an Alcohol Problem If you or someone you love has a problem with alcohol, call the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment at 1-800-662-HELP for information about treatment programs in your local community. Many people also benefit from support groups. For information on local support meetings run by Alcoholics Anonymous, call your local AA chapter (check your local phone directory under Alcoholism) or call 212-870-3400. Check this page for a list of online meetings. For meetings of Al-Anon (for friends and family members in an alcoholic persons life) and Alateen (for children of alcoholics), call your local Al-Anon chapter or call the toll-free number: 1-888-4AL-ANON. You can participate in online Al-Anon meetings. Drinking While Pregnant Is Dangerous Drinking during pregnancy can have a number of harmful effects on your baby, ranging from mental retardation, organ abnormalities, and hyperactivity to learning and behavioral problems. Moreover, many of these disorders last into adulthood. While we dont yet know exactly how much alcohol is required to cause these problems, we do know that they are 100-percent preventable if you dont drink at all during pregnancy. As People Get Older Alcohol Affects Their Bodies Differently Changes in your body as a result of aging can make you more susceptible to the effects of consuming alcohol and increase the risk of injury or accident if you drink. Also, as you age, the more likely it is that your medications will interact with alcohol. Your body treats alcohol as if it were a toxin and tries to break it down and excrete it from your body as quickly as possible. As you get older, your metabolism can change, requiring a longer amount of time for alcohol to metabolize. Alcohol Affects a Womans Body Differently From a Mans There are many different ways that alcohol affects women differently from men and some of them are related to the fact that womens bodies simply have less water than men. Not only can this affect the way alcohol makes women feel, it also affects some of the long-term health effects of alcohol. Alcohol Is Good for Your Heart Several studies have reported that moderate drinkersâ€"those who have one or two drinks per dayâ€"are less likely to develop heart disease than people who do not drink any alcohol or who drink larger amounts. Small amounts of alcohol may help protect against coronary heart disease by raising levels of good HDL cholesterol and by reducing the risk of blood clots in the coronary arteries. If youre a non-drinker, you shouldnt start drinking only to benefit your heart. Protection against coronary heart disease may be obtained through regular physical activity and a low-fat diet. And if youre pregnant, planning to become pregnant, have been diagnosed as an alcoholic, or have any medical condition that could make alcohol use harmful, you should not drink. Even for those who can drink safely and choose to do so, moderation is the key. Heavy drinking can actually increase the risk of heart failure, stroke, and high blood pressure, as well as cause many other medical problems, such as liver cirrhosis. Understanding a Standard Drink A 12 oz. can of beer, a 5 oz. glass of wine, and a 1.5 oz. glass of whiskey, brandy, gin, or vodka are all considered one standard drink  when it comes to the recommended guidelines for alcohol consumption. The Early Detection of Alcohol Consumption Test The Early Detection of Alcohol Consumption test is an algorithm of 20 blood chemistry levels, the results of which are compared to a database of test results from more than 1,700 heavy and light drinkers. It is used to determine if someone has engaged in any heavy consumption of alcohol in the past four to six weeks. What It Means to Hit Bottom You hear recovering alcoholics talk about having to hit bottom before they realized they had a problem and reached out for help. That means they ignored a lot of signals that they had a problem right up until the point that it finally got painful enough to seek help. Brain Shrinkage and Alcoholism According to research by Dr. Andreas Bartsch of the University of Wuerzburg, Germany, abstinence from alcohol enables your brain to reverse the shrinkage caused by alcohol and to perform better, but his research also shows that the longer you drink excessively, the more your brain loses the capacity for regeneration. Diabetes and Alcohol If your diabetes is at the point where you require insulin to control your glucose levels, drinking alcohol is a bad idea for a number of reasons. Driving Under the Influence (DUI) Whether a DUI is a felony or a misdemeanor depends on the circumstances and on the state in which you were driving. Drunk driving charges are generally misdemeanors, but in every state and the District of Columbia, there are circumstances upon which your DUI charge can be upgraded to a felony.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Objective 310.2.3-08 Develop an Ethics Program Essay example

Objective 310.2.3-08 I and two other individuals have decided to start a company that will provide management consulting services to nonprofit organizations. The company will have 15 to 20 employees. Since many of our clients will be paying with funds provided by government sources, we have decided it would be appropriate to have an ethics program in place before we start offering services. A company must have an effective ethics program to ensure that all employees understand its values and comply with the policies and codes of conduct that create its ethical culture (Ferrell, Ferrell Fraedrich, 2008, p. 211). In order to develop an effective ethics program, it must contain certain items. It must first have a code of conduct†¦show more content†¦As with other types of codes of conduct, it will contain methods for reporting violations, how discipline is distributed and how it is adjudicated. When developing the code, besides the input of stakeholders, I and my two partners will be directl y involved in forming its content. We will consult our legal counsel to ensure we have avoided any potential legal problems. Six values that have been suggested as being desirable for codes of ethics include: trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness, caring and citizenship (Ferrell, Ferrell Fraedrich, 2008, p. 215). We will use these as a guide when developing our code, as it fits into our desire to have a values orientation for our ethic program. The code will direct all officers and employees while conducting company business to: obey all rules, regulations and laws, conduct themselves with honesty and integrity and to avoid all conflicts of interests with the company business, report to work in condition to work and be free from the influence of alcohol or drugs, respect the rights and deal fairly with all clients, keep honest and accurate records and reports of company information, respect the diversity of all and not engage in discrimination or harassment, preser ve the confidentiality of all company information entrusted to them, maintainShow MoreRelatedDevelop an Ethics Program2151 Words   |  9 PagesObjective 310.2.3-08: Develop an ethics program for a company. Created Company Name: Blue Moose Management Consultants Welcome to our team. We are dedicated to providing our employees a pleasant work atmosphere helps to ensure excellent customer service and protection to our clients through Blue Moose Management Consultants (BMMC) You have been selected from a pool of other candidates because we believe you have the right attitude for success.   In addition, we feel you will add value to our

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Cultural Differences and Intercultural Communication...

When examining my own cultural identity it has occurred to me that many of the things that define my own cultural identity are that of Majority groups, however it would seem that I have just as many if not more Minority group identity factors shaping me ever so slightly within the majority boundaries. For example at first look I am a Married male with a predominantly Anglo-Saxon heritage. However upon close inspection one can begin to notice the red hues within my complexion these are subtle hints to a much less dominant cultural history. Many members of one side of my family strongly identify with our Native American heritage; as a result I spent many years as a young man learning that culture. Later in life when I was around 12 or 13 I†¦show more content†¦Cultural Differences and Intercultural Communication Challenges My interviewee I chose was a man I initially met in the workplace and come to find out our kids ended up going to school together. Our relationship had been an interesting one from the start when we first met he decided to share some of his religious identity to me. Our book defines religious identity as a sense of belonging to a religious group (Martin Nakayama, 2011). Oddly enough we were on lunch break at work and I was hungry that day he approached me and commented on how my chicken smelt good. I had noticed over the past week or so he had not eaten lunch at all so I offered him some of my chicken. He politely declined and explained to me that he was practicing Ramadan and that he only at late at night and early before the sun came up. At first being somewhat ignorant of religion I asked why he explained it was something that followers of Islam do. In a business article it is explained that in Dubai visitors are expected to practice in the same fasting ritual or face punishment including fines and jail time (McGinley, 2011). While laws can vary by country there are some exemptions to the fasting requirements and often include conditions such as menstruation, illness, older age, pregnancy, and breast-feeding (El-Zibdeh, 2009). While I know that fasting is common in many Native American cultures to obtain higher levels of spirituality. I do not believe it was commonlyShow MoreRelated The Effect of Cultural Difference on Intercultural Marriage Essay1240 Words   |  5 PagesThe Effect of Cultural Difference on Intercultural Marriage As the world integrates, more and more people are leaving their mother lands to visit, study and work overseas. Young people now have more opportunities to meet prospective partners from other cultures than they had in the past. â€Å"The number of intercultural couples is increasing worldwide.† (Klein, par.3) Many intercultural couples claim that their relationships do not differentiate from monoculture relationships at first. PassionateRead MoreIntercultural Communication Stumbling Blocks By Samovar, Porter, Mcdaniel Roy1267 Words   |  6 PagesIntercultural Communication Introduction According to the articles Intercultural communication stumbling blocks by Barna and Intercultural communication by Samovar, Porter, McDaniel Roy, describe the various challenges that are faced between communications of two individuals who come from different cultures. Notably, challenges that are faced by different people who come from different cultures exist due to the problem of the difference between the cultural norms. For instance, what is acceptableRead MoreDiversity Within The Workplace And How Communication Is The Driving Force Behind It Essay1463 Words   |  6 PagesDiversity in the workplace and how communication is the driving force behind it. Workplace diversity can be described as â€Å"all the differences in age, gender, sexual orientation, education, cultural background, religion, and life experience† (Okora Washington, 2012, as cited in Mulkeen, 2008). Another functional definition of diversity is being cultural, racial, or sex-based. An organizationâ€⠄¢s definition and viewpoint concerning diversity guides the strength of its employees to connect and communicateRead MoreIntercultural Communication : Communication And Communication1676 Words   |  7 PagesJasmin Starr-Mullins COM 440 W Final Term Paper Intercultural Communication The terms Culture,Globalization, and Communication are terms that we might hear quite often, but what is Intercultural communication? According to the dictionary, Intercultural Communication is often described as the interaction and exchange of communication between people of different cultures. Intercultural Communication dates back to the first interaction of mankind. Edward T. 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The need for effective and clear intercultural communication is becoming vital in securing success in today’s global workplace. Managers of global corporations need to understand the role of intercultural communication competence inRead MoreIntercultural Conflict : Intercultural Conflicts1382 Words   |  6 PagesIntercultural conflicts 1. Identify and describe the types of intercultural conflict, giving examples for each. There are a lot of intercultural conflicts in the workplace which if not succinctly looked into, may cause decreased productivity in an organization and may even lead to the decline of the organization. Avoiding intercultural conflicts enables an organization to improve the relationship between the employees and reduce cases of misunderstanding. Some common forms of misunderstandingRead MoreResponse Paper Intercultural communication986 Words   |  4 Pagesdon’t have a culture†. Until I have read the first chapter of the book Intercultural Communication: Globalization and Social Justice by Kathryn Sorrell, I began to think more deeply about this concept, about my cultural identity and positionality. My view about culture became broaden when I learned about the definition of culture which is a site of shared meaning, of contested meaning, and a resource. To me, intercultural communication is a process of exploring one’s culture among different groups. BecauseRead MoreEssay on intercultural communication1346 Words   |  6 Pagesawareness of intercultural communication is also required.† Do you agree or disagree with his opinion? In a well-structured essay explain your ideas using clear examples to support your ideas. Distance and time are no longer the biggest obstacles to doing business, as result of human innovation and technological progress. And with the development of communications and wide-spread cooperation all over world, more and more companies are exploring the international market. (Johnson 2012) Intercultural communicationRead More(Re)Building A Global Team: Tariq Khan At Tek. The Ability1406 Words   |  6 Pagescelebrating differences involves a complex process that can be an opportunity for reflection and self discovery. At Tek, Tariq Khan may have that opportunity. Currently, the company is facing diverse challenges. Besides employee satisfaction declining, insensitivity towards social and cultural practices are the norm. Additionally, working across boundaries is exhausting and the situation has gotten critical. This paper examines diverse challenges Tek is facing, complex concepts based on intercultural communication

Enrollment forecasting methodology Free Essays

Virtually, forecasting plays everywhere a major role in human life, especially in making future decisions such as weather forecasting, university enrollment, production, sales and finance, etc. Based on these forecasting results, we can prevent damages to occur or get benefits from the forecasting activities. Up to now, many qualitative and quantitative forecasting models were proposed. We will write a custom essay sample on Enrollment forecasting methodology or any similar topic only for you Order Now However, these models are unable to deal with problems in which historical data take form of linguistic constructs instead of numerical values. In recent years, many methods have been proposed to deal with forecasting problems using fuzzy time series. In this paper, we present a new method to predict the calendar day for average Arabian Gulf Oil Company using fuzzy time series approach based on average lengths of intervals. A visual-based programming is used in the implementation of the proposed model. Results obtained demonstrate that the proposed forecasting model can forecast the data effectively and efficiently Keywords: Fuzzy time series, Forecasting, Fuzzy sets, Average-based lengthl . Forecasting the size of any phenomenon in future is important and helpful for understanding behavior of phenomenon along time. It is impossible to make future plans to face the phenomenon without defining its future dimensions and identifying shape and modes of complicated process, especially when it is related to future forecasting. Making decisions depends completely on accuracy of forecasting. It is evident that forecasting plays major role in our daily life. The accurate and the most efficient forecasting may support making correct decisions to raise accuracy of our expectations up to 100%. This may be impossible, yet we try to reduce forecasting errors. In order to solve forecasting problems, many researchers proposed several methods and different models. One of these models is traditional time series analysis, uni-variant and multi-variant. However, traditional time series has wide applications, but it must satisfy proper conditions to be successful. For example, 50 up to 100 bservations at least are needed to achieve Autoregressive and Integrated Moving Average Models (ARIMA) and average zero is needed to achieve autoregressive. Traditional time series has been applied in many fields such as pollution monitoring, blood pressure estimation, etc. This problem has been studied widely in statistics areas and neural networks. However, in practical life, there are regression models in which the uncertainty accompanied to the model is because of vagueness, not because of neither randomness nor both of them. In these models, probability theory cannot be pplied and fuzzy sets theory is applied, where variables are foggy i. e. declarative variables are not fixed and scaling of these variables is not expressed by a point, but by an interval or linguistic variables [1, 3]. 2. FUZZY LOGIC Fuzzy logic [1 1], is a form of logic which has used in some expert systems and artificial intelligence applications. It was first proposed in 1965 by the Iranian scientist Lutfi Zadeh, at University of California, where he developed it as a better method of data processing. However, his theory didn’t find a wide interest until 1974, where fuzzy logic was used to control a steam engine. Since then, applications of fuzzy logic kept developing until the manufacturing of fuzzy logic chip which have been used in many products such this science. There are many reasons for scientists to improve fuzzy logic. For example, development of computers and software founded the need to invent or program systems that are capable of dealing with ambiguous information to mimic human thinking. However, this created a problem since computers can only deal with exact and accurate data. This problem caused occurrence of expert systems and artificial intelligence. Fuzzy logic is a theory for building such systems. Fuzzy set theory has many useful achievements in different fields and it aims at approximation of professional knowledge that contains vagueness in human thinking. Figure 1 illustrates the difference between traditional and fuzzy set theories. Fuzzy logic simply reflects how do people think and try to represent our feelings by words, decisions making and our common sense. So, fuzzy logic models are being increasingly used in time series analysis, where they are important for dealing with linguistic values and other models in order to yield better forecasting results. Time Series is defined as a sequence of events easured in successive times at definite intervals. It was widely used in economic systems such as stock index and interest. Also, it was used in metrology, especially in wind speed, temperature, pressure, Figure 1: Traditional and fuzzy sets 3. FUZZY TIME SERIES Fuzzy time series is another concept to solve forecasting problems in which the historical data are linguistic values. Fuzzy time series based on Zadeh’s works [1 1], Song and Chissom [7], first proposed a forecasting model called Fuzzy Time Series, which provided a theoretic framework to model a special dynamic process hose observations are linguistic values. The main difference between the traditional time series and fuzzy time series is that the observed values of the former are real numbers while the observed values of the latter are fuzzy sets or linguistic values. In the following, some basic concepts of fuzzy time series are briefly reviewed Definition 1: Let U ,u2 un } be a universe of discourse (universal set); a fuzzy set A of U is defined fA (u ) / u fA (u ) / un ,where fA is a membership function of a given set A , fA [0,1]. Definition 2 If there exists a fuzzy relationship R(t – 1, t), such that F(t) =F(t ), where is an arithmetic operator, then F(t) is said to be caused by F(t – 1). The relationship between F(t) and – 1) can be denoted by – 1) Definition 3 Suppose F(t) is calculated by F(t – 1) only, and – 1) R(t,t-l). For any t, if R(t – 1, t) is independent of t, then F(t) is considered a timeinvariant fuzzy time series. Otherwise, F(t) is timevariant. Definition 4 Suppose – 1) and F(t)= A], a fuzzy logical relationship can be defined as Ai AJ where Ai and AJ are called the left-hand side and the right-hand side of the fuzzy logical relationship, respectively. 4. REVIEW OF RELATED WORKS Many studies have interested in fuzzy time series and have been applied in various fields including university enrollment. Fuzzy time series had proved its efficiency in forecasting as a good new method for predicting linguistic values. Song and Chisson [9, 10] first introduced the method of fuzzy time series, humidity and rainfall. In addition, time series was used in geophysical records including indexed measurements, times of earthquake, radiological activities, industrial production, rates of idleness, etc. therefore, they are considered as founders of fuzzy time series science. Also, in 1994, they introduced a eries. Chen [1] presented a new method for forecasting university enrollment using fuzzy time series historical data enrollments of the university of Alabama from 1971 to 1992, the proposed method is more efficient than the proposed method by Song and Chissom, due to the fact that the proposed method uses simplified arithmetic operation rather than the complicated MaxMin composition operation. Hwang [8] proposed a new method on fuzzification to revise Song and Chissom’s method. He used a different triangle fuzzification method to Fuzzify crisp values. His method involved determining an interval of xtension from both sides of crisp value in triangle membership function to get a variant degree of membership. The result got a better average forecasting error, in addition, the influences of factors and variables in a fuzzy time series model such as definition area, number and length of intervals and the interval of extension in triangle membership function were discussed in details Step 2: Define the universe of discourse U. Find the maximum Dmax and the minimum Dmin among all Dh. For easy partitioning of U, choose two small numbers Dl and D2 as two proper positive numbers. The purpose of Dl and D2 is to make the lower and upper bounds of U become multiple of hundreds, thousands, etc. The universe of discourse U is then defined by: U = Dt-ntn -Dl , Drnax+D2 Step 3: Determine the appropriate length of interval L. Here, the average-based length method (Huarng, 2001 b) can be applied to determine the appropriate L. The length of interval L is computed according to the Table 1: Base mapping table Range Base 0. 1-1. 0 0. 1 1. -10 11-100 10 101-1000 a) Calculate all the absolute differences between the values Dh-l and Dh as the first differences, and then compute the average of the first differences. b) Take one-half of the average as the length. c) Find the located range of the length and determine the base from Table 1 d) According to the assigned base, round the length as the appropriate L. Then the number of intervals m, is computed by: D max+D2-D Then U can be partitioned into equal-length intervals Assume that the m intervals are Step4: Define fuzzy sets from the universe of discourse: f(un)(3) Ai=A11+A22+†¦.. +Ai l Then fuzzify the time series. First determine some linguistic values A1, A2, †¦ , An. Second, defined fuzzy sets on U. The fuzzy sets Ai are expressed as follows: 10. 500 0. 510 . 50 00. 51 0. 5 Step 5: fuzzify the historical data. If the value of Dh is located in the range of ui, then it belongs to fuzzy sets A’. All Dh must be classified into the corresponding fuzzy sets. However, fuzzify the historical data and give fuzzy set to each year’s historical data. If the historical data belongs to Ai at year t, the historical data of that year can be written by A’. But usually one historical data to ifferent A1, the need to find out maximum degree of each year’s historical data belonging to each A1. Step 6: Establish fuzzy logical relationships (FLRs) for all fuzzified data, derive the fuzzy logical relationships based on Definition (3). The fuzzy logical relationship which have the same left-hand sides is like Ai Ak, which denotes that if the Dh-lvalue of time t-1 is AJ then that of time t is Ak Table 2: Fuzzy relationship Ak Ar A1 Am 0. 5 um -2 um -1 um Where ui n) is the element and the number below ‘/’is the membership of ui to Then follow the rules for determining the degree of the membership of the istorical data Yi belonging to interval u’. The general triangular membership function is expressed as below: Step 7: establish the fuzzy logic relationship groups (FLRG). The derived fuzzy logical relationships can be arranged into fuzzy logical relationship groups based on the same fuzzy numbers on the left-hand sides of the fuzzy logical relationships. The fuzzy logical relationship groups are like the following: AJI Step 8: The forecasting of the historical data is based on heuristic rules proposed by chen (1996) and outlined as follows. How to cite Enrollment forecasting methodology, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Production and operation management of Nestle Company

Introduction Nestle is a nutrition company that aims at enhancing better and quality livelihoods to people. It has varied products that mainly help in improving healthy lifestyle of the people.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Production and operation management of Nestle Company specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Over the years, the company has used its resources and technology to find sustainable solutions to socio-economic needs of its customers. Some of these needs include poverty eradication, better sanitation and food security. This gives the company a competitive advantage over many other companies1. Apart from corporate social responsibility, the company created Nestle nutrition, a business strategy meant to focus on the core nutrition business. Therefore, strengthening the leadership in this market is crucial for their success. This market is the primary motivation for the purchase of its product based on the nutritional value. Nestle nutrition is autonomous global business unit that is meant to increase the competitive edge of the company. The unit is charged with the profit and loss responsibility in its utmost domains, which include Infant Nutrition, Healthcare Nutrition, and Performance nutrition. The latter is aimed at delivering superior business performance to consumers by offering science based nutritional products and services2.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To enhance its competitive advantage, the company has Corporate Wellness Unit, which focuses on integrating nutritional value to food and beverage products. It encompasses communication effort, which brings the necessary expertise in consumer benefits. Nestle products and services Nutrition has been the cornerstone of Nestle Company since its inception in the year 1867. Therefore, most products and services pr ovided by the company revolve around nutritional needs. The company strives at providing quality products and services which will help in promoting a better and healthy wellbeing of its consumers. Nestle has gained a world reputation for its consistency in providing quality and safety products. Many of the products generated by Nestle Company are beneficial based on the nutritional aspects. They include breakfast cereals, milk and other dairy products as well as bottled water which has diverse accrued advantages3. Many of these products dominate in both local and global markets. The company has ventured in chocolate and confectionery industry. Some of these products have been in existence for over a century. For example, S. Pellegrino and Nestle Moca are known in Italy and Brazil for many years. The most revered world brands include Nescafe, Nestea, Maggi, Buitoni, Purina and Nestle. Other brands, such as Milo and Nespresso, sell in many countries. Nestle takes a holistic approach i n providing nutrition to the people. This entails devising of wellness programs that facilitate the people to make their living healthy.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Production and operation management of Nestle Company specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The services include baby’s development, Sports Nutrition and Weight management. No doubt, Nestle brand portfolio practically covers all food and beverages categories. Design and quality control strategies The running of the company’s business is governed by two fundamental documents, Nestle Corporate Business Principles and Nestle Management and Leadership Principles. The two provide the code of ethics that governs the policies and strategies of the company. They outlay the tone and style of approach to the running of the business. The company’s business strategy is to produce and market its products in a way that creates sustainable valu e to all stakeholders including the employees, consumers and business consortium in the areas that the company operates. The company does not favor short-term profits over long-term business orientation. The company recognizes that consumers have a legitimate interest in the behavior and the success of the company’s business, hence it embraces cultural and social diversity. The company is not discriminatory in management of the business on the basis of nationality, religion, race or age. The company does not involve in political issues. The rich cultural diversity helps in building innovative ideas for generating products which would meet the needs of the society.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company has not been left behind in environmental conservation. It has invested heavily in conservation of the environment. In a bid to save the environment, the company has endeavored in recycling of waste materials and packaging. Nestle pioneered the Kyoto Protocol, an agreement to control carbon dioxide emissions in combating global warming4. The company was the first to produce biodegradable containers as an alternative to plastics for packing their food products. Nestle competitive advantage Nestle is a global organization, and its international strategy should be the heart of its competitive domain. The competitive strategy of the company mainly focuses on foreign investment in dairy and other food businesses. When operating in a more developed environment, Nestle strives to attain the economies of scale via foreign direct investment5. In a developing environment, Nestle Company goes the local way by utilizing the local raw materials and employing the appropriate brand. Ne stle Company strikes strategic partnership with other large companies. For example, the company entered an alliance with Coca Cola Company to produce ready-to-drink beverages, such as tea and coffee6. This was in a bid to utilize the established bottling system and necessary expertise in beverage preparation. The Company has employed the strategy of acquiring the local companies to form an established autonomous regional manager who is aware of the local markets dynamics7. Nestle company has left a significant mark in food and nutrition sector, hence becoming very competitive in the scope of business8. Bibliography Franzen, G. Moriarty, S. The Science and Art of Branding. New York: M.E. Sharpe, 2008. Kapferer, J.N. The New Strategic Brand Management: Creating and Sustaining Brand Equity Long Term 4th. London, UK: Kogan Page, 2008. Nestlà © LC1. ‘Nestle’s Competetive Strategy‘. Castelar Articles, 2005. Web. Footnotes 1. Franzen, Giep Moriarty, Sandra.The Science and Art of Branding. New York: M.E. Sharpe, 2008. 2. Nestlà © LC1. ‘Nestle’s Competetive Strategy’. Castelar Articles, 2005. 33. J.N. Kapferer. The New Strategic Brand Management: Creating and Sustaining Brand Equity Long Term 4th. London, UK: Kogan Page, 2008. 44. J.N. Kapferer. The New Strategic Brand Management: Creating and Sustaining Brand Equity Long Term 4th. London, UK: Kogan Page, 2008. 5. Nestlà © LC1. ‘Nestle’s Competetive Strategy’. Castelar Articles, 2005. 6. Ibid. 7. Ibid. 8. G. Franzen S. Moriarty. The Science and Art of Branding. New York: M.E. Sharpe, 2008. This report on Production and operation management of Nestle Company was written and submitted by user Tristin Mcintyre to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.