Saturday, November 9, 2019

Looking At The Diversity In Society Social Work Essay Example

Looking At The Diversity In Society Social Work Essay Example Looking At The Diversity In Society Social Work Essay Looking At The Diversity In Society Social Work Essay This essay explores how the individuality of Looked after kid LAC contribute to subjugation and favoritism in two specific countries of Education and Health. The essay will analyze the function of statute law and policy in battling or advancing favoritism and subjugation. The history, social attitudes, diverseness, positions of the kids and theories underpinning ( LAC ) will besides be discussed within the essay. Finally I will concentrate on the deductions and relevancy to Social Work pattern. For the intents of lucidity I will get down by specifying oppression , discrimination and stigma . Thompson ( 1997 ) identifies subjugation as the disregarding of persons or group of people s rights ensuing in inhuman or opprobrious intervention with laterality and power by one group over another. For Thompson ( 2006 ) , favoritism refers to a procedure of unfair or unequal intervention of persons or groups ensuing in sabotaging the involvements of people from a less powerful class within society. Goffman, ( 1963 ) , and Parker and Aggleton, ( 2003 ) , s theories of stigma help us to understand how stigma is constructed and its influence in people s lives. Goffman ( 1963 ) describes stigma as an property that is profoundly falling within a peculiar societal interaction, where the individual possessing the property falls short of social outlooks . Parker and Aggleton ( 2003 ) construe stigma as a tool of continuing or sabotaging societal constructions. They view stigma and favoritism as functional systems which maintain boundaries between those in power and those without. Through such power, societal inequalities are developed taking to creative activity of societal norms. Social norms formulate stigma as they govern interactions between people Diverseness in Society Assignment 1016433 and reenforce power constructions that serve to insulate those that are regarded as foreigners. From the above definitions of Oppression, Discrimination and stigma it can be deduced that the common elements are abuse of power and privilege ensuing in inequalities and disadvantage. ( LAC ) are one of the less fortunate groups of people in society who experience such intervention because of their individuality. The last three decennaries have experienced a immense inspection and repair and debut of statute law and policies seeking to turn to the demands of kids. The Children s Act 1989 ( CA 1989 ) reformed Law associating to kids and in peculiar set out the model for the proviso of support for kids and households and for the protection of kids in England and Wales. This was in line with the United Nations on the Rights of the Child ( UNCRC 1989 ) which was the first lawfully adhering International instrument to advance the rights of kids throughout the universe. Burke and Parker ( 2007 ) . Other relevant statute law and policies are The Quality Protects ( 1998 ) , Children Leaving Care Act ( 2000 ) , Adoption and Children Act ( 2002 ) , the Choice Protects policy, the Children s Act ( 2004 ) , Every Child Matters ( 2004 ) , Care Matters ( Green and White Papers ) and The Children and Young Persons Act ( 2008 ) . These enterprises were in response to studies of maltreatment, disregard, injury and safeguarding kids in different establishments of residential attention in the UK with the most publicized single instances such as the deceases of Victoria Climbe ( 2000 ) . It was revealed that Staff working with vulnerable kids was non adequately trained, strictly checked on enlisting, no support and watchfulness towards diverseness and openness. This led to Laming Report ( 2003 ) which revealed important weaknesss within persons and administrations which were meant to be looking after kids. Diverseness in Society Assignment 1016433 The Children s Act ( 2004 ) emerged to implement and turn to the recommendations. In 2009 Lord Laming was besides asked by the authorities to supply an exigency advancement study on issues environing safeguarding kids following the decease of Baby P in 2007. He identified and reinforced those systematic and single failures as the cause of decease to a kid whom they were supposed to look and care for. Crippling study ( 2009 ) Research has questioned the effectivity of such enterprises cut downing favoritism of LAC. A few illustrations are: Children experience of the Children Act ( 1989 ) , Discrimination Against Young People in Care ( 1998 ) : Remember my message ( 1993 ) , The Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care in England Project ( 2006 ) , Barriers to alter in the Social Care ( 2000 ) , Breaking at the seams ( 2010 ) and the recent Panorama BBC programme on experiences of kids go forthing Care ( 5 October 2010 ) . The UK is a multicultural society with diverseness which policy shapers and legislators need to admit. Blaine ( 2007 ) positions diverseness as the presence of differences in society in relation to gender, race, ethnicity, faith, societal category and sexual orientation. These differences are neither good nor bad nevertheless some of the differences are associated with inequality and disadvantage. Social work pattern is concerned with turn toing these differences and disadvantages. Burke and Parker ( 2007 ) Cocker and Allain ( 2008 ) identify ( LAC ) and ( YP ) as kids in the attention of the local authorization, through a Care Order made by a tribunal or voluntary understanding with their parent ( s ) to suit them. They may be looked after in kids s place Diverseness in Society Assignment 1016433 , by surrogate carers, or other household members. All unaccompanied refuge seeking kids are besides ( L AC ) . ( UASC ) There is no exact figure for ( LAC ) but ( Dfe Statistics 2010 ) reveal that there were about 64,400 looked after kids as at 31 March 2010 while the ( BBC Panorama October 2010 ) mentioned around 70, 000 looked after kids as on 5 October intending the figure is increasing. The chief grounds of being in attention were abuse or neglect ( 52 per cent ) . There were 3,400 Unaccompanied Asylum Seeking Children ( UASC ) who were looked after at 31 March 2010. This is a lessening of 12 per cent from 2009. There is a lessening in the Unaccompanied Asylum Seeker Children. ( UASC ) ( DfES 2010 ) Hogg and Vaughan ( 2002 ) positions individuality as associated with the procedure an single becomes who they are in the sense of personhood and other s position of who they are. Furthermore a individual has multiple individualities which need to be seen as portion of the whole person as ignoring some facets would be deceptive and reductive of the person s individuality. Graham ( 2000 ) high spots that individualities have different significances and are non fixed but change over clip as a consequence of environment, personal fortunes and outside influences. These influences will significantly impact the societal experience and the self image of those defined, through, for illustration the experience of negative favoritism. All facets of a kid s individuality demand to be recognised and acknowledged regardless of gender, race, ethnicity or faith. By developing a positive individuality kids are motivated and their ego regard is enhanced for them to experience a sense of value, belonging and deserving Blaine ( 2007 ) . However Cocker and Allain ( 2008 ) argue that non all environments are positive in furthering this thought. When this occur the kid Diverseness in Society Assignment 1016433 becomes withdrawn and shy to open up and prosecute. Having a ( LAC ) individuality endangers a kid to be different, socially excluded, marginalised and denied equal chances in accessing services. Measuring Children in Need ( 2000 ) as such Social workers need to follow and work with a culturally sensitive attack and use the reconciliation act to heighten the resiliency construct. Masten ( 1994 ) cited in Daniel et Al ( 2002 ) Burke and Parker ( 2007 ) highlight that the Social Work context and the engagement of a Social worker in a kid s life apply and place the kid as different. This is revealed by the bureaucratic and comprehensive paperwork, regular reappraisal and educational meetings, visits, contact agreements and processs and guidelines are associated with the looked after kid but are non experienced by most kids in normal life scenes. However this statement is dismissed by Garret ( 2003 ) cited in Burke and Parker ( 2007 ) when he affirms that paperwork and bureaucratic processs are indispensable tools for a societal worker to utilize in assisting them place and turn to of import developmental demands of the kid but should nevertheless promote more one to one contact with the kid instead than disbursement clip on paperwork. Because of their individuality a LAC they are disadvantaged and discriminated against at School and in affairs related to Education DfE ( 2010 ) . Research has revealed that ( LAC ) do non execute good and are likely non to hold ( GCSE ) and most likely hazard being expelled from School due to behaviour. Statisticss show that a 3rd of ( LAC ) ( LAC ) obtains a GCSE and a farther fifth obtain fewer than five GCSEs. Although these figures are lower than a few old ages ago, they are still much higher than for kids as a whole: more than half non obtaining five or more General certificate of secondary educations compared to less than one in 10 kids as a whole. The Social Exclusion Unit ( 2003 ) published Diverseness in Society Assignment 1016433 A papers ( A Better Education for Children in Care ) which highlighted 5 grounds for the low attainment degrees runing from Instability caused by insecure arrangements, intimidation, deficiency of support and encouragement at place, clip out of school due to ejection, support and encouragement and emotional, mental or physical wellness. Schofield and Beek ( 2009 ) suggest that parents and people at place where the kid lives need to be supportive and promoting to the kid larning success. School environment should advance larning that develops a kid holistically to ease the ego find method and accepting themselves as they interact with other kids. This is non ever the instance as kids are disrupted of continuity in subsiding and doing friends if arrangement interruptions down. Sometimes strong-arming at school consequences in low ego regard. Although most local governments have put in topographic point a figure of inter disciplinary services looking at the physical, mental good being of kids discrapencies still exist. However in Jackson and McParlin ( 2006 ) in their article ( the instruction of kids in attention ) professionals are seen to be doing premises and leaping into decisions stoping up giving labels and long prescribed long term solutions to short term jobs unnecessarily. This is associated with disregard an d favoritism. More preparation and consciousness of diverseness, anti discriminatory patterns and individualized individual centred attack should be reinforced. ( Every Child Matters 2004 ) Morgan ( 2010 ) argues that the job of hapless school public presentation in ( LAC ) lies in the attention and instruction system non in the kids. They argue that the attention and instruction systems do non turn to pre attention experiences of the kid low attainment and besides failure to turn to the wake or the impact of separation when kids are removed from their households. The kid may be enduring from undiagnosed station Diverseness in Society Assignment 1016433 traumatic emphasis which can break out in any confined environment such as school schoolrooms. They besides argue that instructors have no cognition of the kid s history. Teacher preparation does non fit instructors with cognition of the attention system and on turn toing behavior from ( LAC ) . Jackson et Al. ( 2005 ) cited in Morgan ( 2010 ) carried out a research with pupils in Higher instruction who had a attention background over a 5 twelvemonth period. The respondents experienced a high degree of injury, maltreatment and disregard but were placed in surrogate places that were supportive and valued instruction. The findings revealed that surrogate households who support instruction and observe the kid s accomplishments are more likely to counterbalance to some degree the pre attention experiences and advance higher attainment in instruction. It is of import to put kids in arrangements which are supportive to the kid s success in instruction, surrogate resiliency and offer a safe topographic point to turn and accomplish. To back up kids s wellbeing the authorities has put in topographic point the Children and Young Persons Act ( 2008 ) with a committedness to advance the well-being of kids and those who are involved in their attention. Children and Young Persons Act ( 20 08 ) Dunnett et Al ( 2006 ) acknowledged the enterprises by Government such as the Health of Looked after Children ( DOh, 2002 ) in bettering the Health of Looked after Children as of import and the proposed Care Planning for LAC and Care Leavers to be implemented April 2011. However harmonizing to research a figure of wellness shortages still prevailed such as sick wellness, hapless diagnosing, and dental disregard, disregard of everyday immunization showing, hapless diagnosing, limited attending to chronic sick wellness and limited attending to mental wellness jobs. Surveies like the ( Hill and Walters 2004 ) and the ( Loughborough survey: Doh ) ( 2006 ) revealed incompatibilities and Diverseness in Society Assignment 1016433 concerns on audience and intervention. Besides surveies revealed that adolescents in attention found it hard to discourse sex instruction due to fear, deficiency of privateness and trust. They wanted a important trusty individual to confide in. As such most of their Health demands are overlooked and non met as they are labelled, stereotyped and marginalised. Axford ( 2008 ) in her article researching societal exclusion noted this trouble as more prevalent among kids from Black Ethnic Minority background who face a cultural, linguistic communication and racism within administrations that are meant to back up and look after them particularly asylum searchers. In an article ( LAC ) experiences of the Children Act ( 1989 ) highlighted that there are go oning myths about the Act which are still disfavoring ( LAC ) . The kids still feel they are non to the full cognizant of their rights under the Act as they face twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours ordinances and consecutive barriers. Children still feel they do non have what the jurisprudence says they should. A typical illustration was in socializing with limitations on hazard appraisals for nightlong corsets by adolescents in attention. This has brought a sense of favoritism and marginalization as it is for normal adolescents to make nightlong corsets. Prout ( 2000 ) cited in Glenny and Roaf ( 2008 ) further picked up another struggle and tenseness among within authorities sections and marks when he mentions that control and ego realization are both present in statute law and policy but in tenseness. On one cantonment there is the thought of sing kids as persons with a capacity for ego realization within a safe social environment while in the other cantonment there is the thought of sing kids as vulnerable and necessitating control, ordinance and surveillance. One illustration Youth Matters four challenges to assist adolescents achieve the ECM results. ( DfES 2005 ) Diverseness in Society Assignment 1016433 Social workers need to listen, prosecute and work in partnership with looked after kids. In a research by Holland ( 2010 ) to researching the Ethics of Care as being Marginalised, non being implemented and recognised it was evidenced that enduring relationships are disrupted by arrangements as kids frequently acknowledged their links to their yesteryear and important people in their lives. This highlights the importance of their single tract in advancing their well-being and interpersonal relationships and future accomplishments. Clarke ( 2010 ) emphasises the demand to prolong and advance enduring care relationships with formal carers and societal workers to avoid the effects of loss, neglect and worthlessness by listening to their narrative, researching and seting their demands and picks foremost. Oliver et Al ( 2006 ) Briefing Paper Advocacy for ( LAC ) unveiled that research has highlighted that there were some ambivalency within professionals as to what extent kids must be involved in determination devising to affairs refering their attention every bit good as resource barriers. To get the better of these restraints Winter ( 2009 ) suggeste d regular contact, feedback, protagonism and seting the demands of the kid foremost necessitate to be precedence as kids value being listened to and holding their wants fulfilled by active engagement in affairs refering their well-being. I besides have personal experience when I was involved in a audience exercising with Young Persons ( YP ) go forthing attention as portion of my coursework. The ( YP ) highlighted that sometimes they did non have any feedback from societal workers when they contact them. Besides they mentioned that there was a batch of bureaucratism which they felt treated them as different and treated them discriminatory for illustration societal work visits at school and regular reappraisals or educational meetings. They felt they wanted to be treated as normal kids non Service users. Barriers to Change in the Social Diverseness in Society Assignment 1016433 Care ( 2000 ) suggest and support that there should be a Human rights attack in working with looked after children.Glenny and Roaf ( 2008 ) suggested earlyIntervention is indispensable to back up kids and households before jobs either from within the household or as a consequence of external factors, which have an impact on both the kid and household. Statutory and voluntary administrations have an duty to work in partnership for the success of early intercession docket. Teamwork will set up protocols which will assist to guarantee early indicants of being at hazard of societal exclusion are addressed and receive proper attending. McLeod ( 1998 ) highlighted the demand to admit Child development which enable kids accept and discover themselves through phases and exposure to advance ego consciousness, assurance, self esteem and positive attitudes. McLeod highlighted Freud s psycho-analysis theory ( 1859-1939 ) , Erickson s psycho-social development theory ( 1950 ) and Bowlby s fond regard theory ( 1969 ) . This position is shared in the literature reappraisal by Hunt ( 2003 ) cited in ( Ritchie ( 2005 ) critical reappraisal ) which highlights that although there is no concrete grounds of affinity attention over non kin Foster attention there are indicants that opportunities are the former promotes the kid s well-being and public assistance than the latter. It is of import for Social Workers to be cognizant of child developmental demands and how valuable household ties are. Schofield and Beek, ( 2005 ) cited in Shaw ( 2010 ) affirms that past relationships with household and professionals has an impact on the ki d s well-being and ability to get by with life on their ain. Active rearing concentrating on the kid s demands and positive battle with the kid will assist and advance accomplishments to cover with hard state of affairss in life. Social workers need to advance resiliency to authorise kids to face challenges and trade with their yesteryear and hereafter. Daniel and Wassell ( 2002 ) Diverseness in Society Assignment 1016433 Bates et Al ( 1997 ) suggests that appraisal model should further individuality and acknowledge diverseness in order to advance a kid s perceptual experience of themselves and their environment. Social workers need to use anti-discriminatory pattern with chances and resources for ego find through interaction. ( Assessment for Children in demand Practice 2000 ) The Children and Young Persons Act ( 2008 ) besides emphasises its committedness to advance a kid s well being and the people involved in the attention of the kid. Although there has been noteworthy enterprises in turn toing the demands of Looked after kids for the past 10 old ages a batch still has to be done in footings of social attitudes, resources and safeguarding. To accomplish the every kid affairs outcomes all the stakeholders need to work together by seting the demands and act in the best involvement of the kid. By listening and prosecuting with ( LAC ) practicians will be able to better Children s quality of life. Anti prejudiced pattern, authorization, diverseness and equal chances patterns are portion of the reply. . 3033words Diverseness in Society Assignment 1016433

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